Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

The circulatory system of the leg involves the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body, and veins that carry blood back to the heart. The leg has two types of veins: the superficial veins and the deep veins. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a medical condition in which there is a blood clot, also known as thrombus, that forms in the deep veins, most commonly found in the calf or thigh. The risk of DVT is higher in those with certain risk factors, which include blood or vein conditions, other medical conditions, women’s health issues, and certain lifestyle factors.

DVT can be a serious medical emergency, and if the blood clot breaks free from the vein and travels to the lung, it can lead to a pulmonary embolism, which can cause difficulty breathing and sometimes even death. Therefore, it is important to identify and treat DVT as soon as possible to avoid any potentially life-threatening complications.

Risk Factors for DVT:

Blood or vein conditions:

– Previous DVT
– Varicose veins
– Blood clotting disorders
– Family history of DVT or blood-clotting disorders

Other medical conditions:

– Heart disease
– Chronic swelling of the legs
– Obesity
– Inflammatory bowel disease
– Cancer
– Dehydration
– Sepsis

Women’s Health issues:

– Hormone replacement therapy
– Birth control pills containing estrogen
– Pregnancy or recent childbirth


– Age over 40 years old
– Immobility (through inactivity or from wearing a cast)
– Recent surgery
– Trauma (an injury)
– Smoking

Causes of DVT

Several factors may contribute to the formation of a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg. Those with multiple risk factors for DVT are at a higher risk of developing this condition. However, even those without any apparent risk factors can also develop DVT.

Signs and Symptoms of DVT in the Leg

Some individuals may have no signs or symptoms of DVT, while others may experience vague symptoms. If any of the following symptoms occur, it is vital to seek medical attention immediately:

– Swelling in the leg
– Pain in the calf or thigh
– Warmth and redness in the leg


Diagnosing DVT can be challenging, especially in the absence of any symptoms. It can be challenging for clinicians to differentiate from other conditions that present with similar symptoms such as a pulled muscle, thrombophlebitis, infection, fracture, or arthritis. If DVT is suspected, the clinician will refer the patient to have a series of tests such as blood tests, Doppler ultrasound, venogram, MRI, or angiogram.

Treatment of DVT

Depending on the location of the clot, the severity of the symptoms, and other underlying medical conditions, the clinician may recommend a range of treatment options. Patients may require hospitalization and be treated by a team that includes, but is not limited to, a primary care physician, internist, vascular surgeon, or hematologist.

Treatment may include:

Medication. The patient may receive blood-thinning medication to reduce the risk of further clotting.

Compression stockings. The clinician may recommend wearing compression stockings to reduce pain and swelling.

Surgery. In some cases, surgery may be necessary.

Complications of DVT

An early and extremely serious complication of DVT is a pulmonary embolism, which occurs when the blood clot breaks free and travels to the lung. Symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood, and a feeling of impending doom. A long-term consequence of DVT includes damage to the affected vein, leading to persistent swelling, pain, and discoloration in the leg.

Preventative Measures

Individuals who have risk factors for DVT can take the following preventative measures to reduce the likelihood of developing blood clots:

– Take blood-thinning medication if prescribed
– Reduce risk factors that can be modified, such as smoking and weight gain
– Exercise legs every 2 to 3 hours to promote blood flow
– Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids
– Consider wearing compression stockings


In conclusion, DVT is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Individuals who are at risk of developing DVT should work with their clinicians to reduce their risk factors and adopt preventative measures. If you are experiencing any symptoms associated with DVT, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Dr Gilbert Huang DPM is an expert in diagnosing and treating DVT and is available to provide expert care to those in need.

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